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Inflammatory Cell Differentiation and Chemotaxis and Extracellular Tissue Repair Markers Are Correlated with Pulmonary Dysfunction in HIV Infected Individuals Presenting with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Keywords: inflammation, cytokine, lung function, pulmonary dysfunction, HIV, CAP


Prior studies shown that HIV patients develop permanent pulmonary dysfunction following an episode of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the mechanism causing pulmonary dysfunction remains an enigma. HIV patients experience chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that CAP exacerbates inflammation in HIV patients resulting in an accelerated decline in lung function. A prospective cohort pilot study enrolled HIV patients hospitalized in Medellin, Colombia, with a diagnosis of CAP. Sixteen patients were eligible for the study; they were split in 2 groups: HIV and HIV+CAP. Plasma, sputum, and pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements were retrieved within 48 h of hospital admission and at 1 month follow-up. The concentrations of 13 molecules and PFT values were compared between the 2 cohorts. The HIV+CAP group had lower lung function compared to the HIV group; forced vital capacity (FVC)% predicted and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)% predicted decreased, while FEV 1/FVC remained constant. APRIL, BAFF, CCL3, and TIMP-1 correlated negatively with FVC% predicted and FEV1% predicted; the relationship however were moderated in strength. Furthermore the concentrations of BAFF, CCL3, and TIMP-1 were statistically significant between the 2 group (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that HIV patients without CAP have a different inflammatory pattern and lower lung function compared to HIV patients without CAP. BAFF, CCL3, and TIMP-1 were abnormally elevated in HIV patients with CAP. Future studies with larger cohorts are required to verify these results. In addition, further investigation is required to determine if BAFF, CCL3, and TIMP-1 play a role in the process causing pulmonary dysfunction.

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